Diabetes terminology

HbA1c: used to measure the average blood glucose level over the past 2-3 months. Also known as glycosylated hemoglobin.

Acute: a sudden and sustained period of time.

A cell in the pancreas. Alpha cells secrete glucagon, a hormone released at low blood sugar.

Atherosclerosis: Cirrhosis, stenosis or obstruction of the artery can lead to stroke, heart disease, eye disease or kidney problems.

Autonomic neuropathy: a type of neuropathy that affects the heart, lung, stomach, intestine, bladder, or genitalia (nerve injury).

Basal rate: Stable drip of long-acting insulin used in insulin pumps.

Β-cells: pancreatic cells secreting insulin in pancreatic islets.

Blood sugar: The main carbohydrate found in the blood and in the body's energy source. Also known as blood sugar.

A small portable device used to check blood glucose levels. Drop a drop of blood on a blood glucose test strip to puncture the skin with blood, and drop a drop of blood on the blood glucose test strip, which will calculate and show blood sugar levels.

Blood glucose monitoring: Regularly check blood glucose with a blood glucose meter to help you manage your diabetes.

Blood pressure: the force exerted by the blood on the vessel wall - in proportion to - 120/80.

Body mass index (BMI): used to identify a person is overweight, normal weight or overweight method. It assesses the relationship between body weight and height.

Meal: Suppresses the amount of insulin required to increase blood sugar after a meal or snack.

Calories: The energy units provided by food. Carbohydrates, protein, fat and alcohol make up your calories in your diet.

Carbohydrate: One of the three main nutrients in food. The food that provides carbohydrates is starch, certain vegetables, fruits, dairy products and sugar. A

Carbohydrate Calculation (Carbohydrate Count): A way to calculate carbohydrates in food in a dietary plan.

Cardiovascular disease: heart and vascular disease (arteries, capillaries and veins). A

A fat synthesized by the liver that can be found in the blood. Cholesterol can also be found in some foods. The body uses cholesterol to synthesize hormones and build cell walls. High density lipoprotein (HDL) is a potent cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (LDL) is harmful to cholesterol. Here is a way to distinguish between the two memories:

H = good health, you want to keep the index at a high level.

L = bad body, you want to keep the index at a low level.

Chronic: a long duration of illness.

Continuous Blood Sugar Monitoring (CGM): A system that includes a small sensor inserted below the skin for measuring blood glucose and a device for displaying the results.

Complications: Harmful effects of diabetes, such as damage to eyes, heart, blood vessels, nerves, or kidneys. Studies have shown that keeping blood sugar, blood pressure, and blood lipids at near normal levels can help prevent or delay complications.

Contraindications: the use of a particular drug or the use of a particular treatment in a particular patient is not recommended.

Dawn phenomenon: blood sugar morning rise phenomenon, usually occurs in the morning between 4: 00-8: 00.

Diabetes: a group of manifestations of chronic hyperglycemia (hyperglycemia) metabolic symptoms caused by the inability of the body to synthesize or effectively use insulin.

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA): Very high blood sugar levels associated with insulin deficiency caused by the emergency symptoms, which will lead to body fat decomposition of ketone body, accumulation in the blood and urine.

Endocrine glands: A group of special cells that can release hormones into the blood, such as the pancreas.

Fasting Blood Glucose: Blood glucose levels after 8 to 12 hours (usually one night) are not eaten. Fasting blood glucose testing is used to diagnose diabetes and can be used to diagnose diabetes; it is also used to check whether diabetic blood glucose levels remain within the target range. A

Fat: One of the three main nutrients in food.

A sugar that is naturally present in fruit and honey.

Gastric paralysis: a form of neuropathy that affects the stomach.

Genetic susceptibility: the risk of disease due to the inheritance of certain genes from the family.

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM): Type of diabetes that develops during pregnancy .

Glucagon: A hormone secreted by alpha cells in the pancreas. A

Glucose: One of the simplest forms of sugar.

Blood glucose production index: a method based on the way in which carbohydrate content in food affects blood sugar.

Glycogen: A form of glucose found in the liver and muscle.

Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c): Used to measure the average blood glucose level of a person over the past 2 to 3 months. G: The weight units used in some meal plans.

G: The weight units used in some meal plans.

High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) Cholesterol: Fat found in the blood - known as "beneficial" cholesterol.

Inheritance: from the father to the descendants of the characteristics of transmission.

A chemical that secures and releases into the blood to trigger or regulate the function of the body. Insulin is a hormone.

Hyperglycemia: higher than normal blood sugar. Fasting hyperglycemia refers to blood glucose levels above the ideal level after at least 8 hours of ingestion. Postprandial hyperglycemia refers to blood glucose levels above the ideal level after 1 to 2 hours of eating. A

Hypertension: Hypertension.

Hypoglycemia: also known as hypoglycemia, when a person's blood sugar is lower than normal when the disease occurs. Symptoms include hunger, tension, trembling, sweating, dizziness or dizziness, drowsiness and confusion. If not treated, hypoglycemia can lead to confusion. Hypoglycemia can be treated by taking glucose tablets or carbohydrate-rich foods such as fruit juice to ingest glucose. If the patient has been confused or unable to swallow, can also be used to treat glucagon injection of hypoglycemia. A

Asymptomatic hypoglycemia: the patient can not feel or recognize the symptoms of low blood sugar .

Fasting Glucose Impaired (IFG): Fasting blood glucose tests show that blood glucose is higher than normal, but not yet enough to diagnose symptoms of diabetes. Patients with pre-diabetes have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes and heart disease. A

Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT): Blood glucose levels are higher than normal but are not yet sufficient to diagnose symptoms of diabetes. Your health care professional will need to determine what level your blood glucose level should be. Patients with impaired glucose tolerance (also known as pre-diabetes) develop an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes, heart disease and stroke. A

Injection: Use syringes to inject liquid into the body. Insulin is injected via injection.

Insulin: A hormone that helps the body use glucose to provide energy. The beta cells in the pancreas secrete insulin.

Insulin pen: A device that holds an insulin refill.

Insulin pumps: devices that deliver insulin poker size. The insulin pump is connected to the infusion tube and the infusion tube is provided with a guide needle that can penetrate the skin.

Insulin reaction: when blood sugar drops too low. Also known as hypoglycemia.

Insulin resistance: the body is unable to respond and use its own secretion of insulin symptoms. Insulin resistance can lead to obesity, high blood pressure and high blood lipids. A

Ketone: When the insulin is too small, the body had to break down fat to produce energy and secretion of a chemical substance.

Kidney: A pair of lentils that filter waste and generate urine.

Lactose: the form of sugar in milk.

Needle: (for the blood pen) of the small needle to pierce the skin to get a drop of blood.

Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) Cholesterol: Fat found in the blood. Sometimes referred to as "harmful" cholesterol.

Lipids: Fat in the body.

The liver: the food into energy, from the blood to remove alcohol and poison and manufacture bile organs.

A portion of the retina that has the primary visual ability.

Macular edema: swelling of the macular area.

Large blood vessels: refers to large blood vessels, such as the blood vessels found in the heart. A

Microvascular: refers to the smallest blood vessels, such as the eyes, nerves and kidney found in the blood vessels. A

Kidney disease: kidney disease. Hyperglycemia and high blood pressure can damage the kidneys. When the kidneys are damaged, the protein leaks from the kidneys into the urine. Damaged kidneys can no longer remove waste and excess liquid from the bloodstream. A

Neuropathy: central nervous system diseases. The three major forms of disease in diabetic patients are peripheral neuropathy, autonomic neuropathy and single neuropathy. The most common is peripheral neuropathy, which affects the foot and legs.

Obesity: more severe than overweight - body fat is higher than normal.

Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT): diagnosis of pre-diabetes and diabetes detection. After the fasting (more than 8 hours without eating) for testing.

An organ that secrete insulin and digestive enzymes. The pancreas is located in the posterior part of the stomach, about the size of the palm.

Peripheral neuropathy: will affect the legs, feet or hands of nerve damage. It can cause pain, tingling or numbness.

Score system: A diet plan that uses scores to evaluate calorie content in food.

Diabetes: Excessive thirst - May be a symptom of diabetes.

Eating: Excessive hunger - May be a symptom of diabetes.

Polyuria: urinary frequency - may be symptoms of diabetes.

Postprandial blood sugar: 1 hour after the meal finished blood sugar levels.

Pregnancy: blood glucose levels higher than normal, but not enough to diagnose the symptoms of diabetes. People with diabetes mellitus develop the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, heart disease and stroke. Pre-diabetes is also known as impaired glucose tolerance and impaired fasting glucose.

Pre-dinner blood sugar: blood sugar levels before eating.

Proliferative Retinopathy: A new tiny, fragile vessel that grows eye symptoms along the retina.

Protein: One of the three main nutrients in food.

Retina: the inner membrane of the back of the eye.

Retinopathy: Damage to retinal small blood vessels. May cause loss of vision. When it occurs due to diabetes, also known as diabetic eye disease a

Self-management: managing the continuing process of diabetes. Self-management includes: diet plan, blood glucose check, stay active, taking medications and handling high and low blood sugar.

Starch: Carbohydrate

Sugar: Disaccharide, made from glucose and fructose.

Sugar: A category of sweeteners in carbohydrates, including glucose, fructose and sucrose. Also refers to blood sugar.

Type 1 diabetes: the body can not secrete insulin and characterized by high blood sugar symptoms.

Type 2 diabetes: the body can not secrete adequate insulin or can not effectively use insulin and characterized by high blood sugar symptoms.

A From: US Department of Health and Human Services National Diabetes Information Exchange Center (NDIC) Diabetes Dictionary : http://diabetes.niddk.nih.gov/dm/pubs/dictionary/

ADA website: Common Terms http://diabetes.org/diabetes-basics/common-terms